Robotic Heart Surgery
Robotic Heart Surgery is a robot assisted surgical procedure performed on the heart by cardiac surgeons. This surgery is a minimally invasive cardiac surgery. In robotic surgery, robots do not actually replace the surgeon. But the surgeon performs the operation with the help of highly sophisticated, modern, delicate and precise microsurgical instruments.
The types of cardiac surgery that can be performed with the help of the robot are listed below:
1. Mitral Valve Repair
Mitral valve is present on the left side of the heart. Mitral Valve Repair is a surgery performed in order to prevent the narrowing of the valve or the regurgitation or leakage of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium.
2. Mitral Valve Replacement
This is a cardiac surgery and it is performed to treat severe cases of mitral valve prolapse and heart valve stenosis.
3. Coronary Artery Bypass
Coronary arteries are responsible for the blood supply to the heart. In severe cases of arteriosclerosis, when the coronary artery gets blocked, there is reduced blood supply to the heart. So a surgery is performed to supply blood to the heart by creating an arterial bypass.
4. Repair of Atrial septal defect
This is a cardiac surgery that is performed to repair a hole between the two upper chambers of the heart. The left upper chamber of the heart has oxygenated blood and the right upper chamber of the heart has deoxygenated blood. When a hole is present between the two chambers it leads to mixing of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood.
5. Tricuspid valve surgery
The tricuspid valve lies between the right atrium or the right upper heart chamber and the right ventricle or the right lower heart chamber. Tricuspid valve surgery is performed in case of valve stenosis or valve regurgitation.
Other types of cardiac surgery that can be performed with the help of robot are pericardial drainage and surgery for atrial fibrillation.
Advantages of Robot assisted cardiac surgery
In open heart surgery, the cardiac surgeon has to make large incisions in order to operate on the affected area of the heart. But if the same surgery is performed with the help of a robot then the surgeon can make minimal incision with the use of highly sophisticated technology and instruments. This reduces the risk of post surgical infection. It also helps in decreasing the post-operative pain, and facilitates a speedy recovery. It also helps to reduce the hospital stay of the patient. There is reduced risk of post operative hemorrhage. Robotic surgery also provides the cardiac surgeon a 3D view of the affected area thereby increasing his efficiency.
Robotic heart surgery has many advantages over open heart surgery. But one of the major disadvantages is the financial costs involved. Robotic heart surgery is extremely expensive.
The manufacturers of the robots provide extensive training to the cardiac surgeons. But like all other surgeries this needs plenty of practice and surgeons have to undergo long training sessions before they can perform the robot assisted surgery.